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TEST BANK ROACH'S INTRODUCTORY CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 11TH EDITION ALL CHAPTERS 607 Pages

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TEST BANK ROACH'S INTRODUCTORY CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 11TH EDITION ALL CHAPTERS 607 Pages 

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[Solved] TEST BANK ROACH'S INTRODUCTORY CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 11TH EDITION ALL CHAPTERS 607 Pages

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TEST BANK ROACH'S INTRODUCTORY CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 11TH EDITION ALL CHAPTERS 607 Pages 1. A nursing instructor is preparing a teaching plan for a group of nursing students about pharmacology. When describing this topic, the instructor would focus the discussion on which of the following as an essential aspect? A) Drug name B) Drug class C) Drug action D) Drug source Ans: C Feedback: Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their action on living organisms. Thus, an essential aspect of pharmacology is drug action. An understanding of the drug name, drug class, and drug source is important, but the most critical aspect related to pharmacology is how the drug acts in the body. 2. A nursing student is preparing to administer a prescribed drug to a patient. The student reviews information about the drug and its actions. Which of the following would be the best choice for obtaining this information? Select all that apply. A) Nursing instructor B) Nurse assigned to the patient C) Clinical drug reference D) Prescribing health care provider E) Clinical pharmacist Ans: C, E Feedback: Although the nursing student can ask the nursing instructor, the nurse assigned to the patient, and the prescribing health care provider for information about the drug, the best choices for drug information would include an appropriate drug reference and the clinical pharmacist. 3. When describing the various types of medications to a group of nursing students, a nursing instructor would identify which of the following as a source for deriving medications? Select all that apply. A) Plants B) Synthetic sources C) Mold D) Minerals E) Animals Ans: A, B, C, D, E Feedback: Medications are derived from natural sources, for example, plants, molds, minerals, and animals, as well as created synthetically in a laboratory. Page 2 4. Which of the following names may be assigned to a drug during the process of development? Select all that apply. A) Chemical name B) Official name C) Pharmacologic name D) Trade name E) Nonproprietary name Ans: A, B, D, E Feedback: Throughout the process of development, drugs may have several names assigned to them including a chemical name, a generic (nonproprietary) name, an official name, and a trade or brand name. 5. A drug may be classified by which of the following? Select all that apply. A) The chemical type of the drug's active ingredient B) The way the drug is used to treat a specific condition C) The generic name of the drug D) The trade name of the drug E) The nonproprietary name of the drug Ans: A, B Feedback: A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Generic, trade, and nonproprietary refer to how a drug is named. 6. A group of nursing students are reviewing information about the process of drug development in the United States. The students demonstrate understanding of this process when they identify that which of the following categories are assigned by the Food and Drug Administration to newly approved drugs? Select all that apply. A) Metabolite B) Noncontrolled substance C) Prescription D) Nonprescription E) Controlled substance Ans: C, D, E Feedback: Once drugs are approved for use, the FDA assigns the drug to one of the following categories: prescription, nonprescription, or controlled substance. Metabolite refers to the inactive form of the drug. Noncontrolled substance is a term that is not used. Page 3 7. Which of the following would be most important for the nurse to do to ensure the safe use of prescription drugs in the institutional setting? Select all that apply. A) Administering drugs B) Monitoring clients for drug effects C) Prescribing drugs D) Evaluating clients for toxic effects E) Educating clients/caregivers about drugs Ans: A, B, D, E Feedback: In the institutional setting, the nurse's role to ensure safe use of prescription drugs includes administering drugs, monitoring drug effects, evaluating for toxic effects, and educating clients and caregivers about drugs. 8. The nurse is helping a client review a prescription from the health care provider. When examining the prescription, which of the following would the nurse expect to find documented? Select all that apply. A) Name of the drug B) Dosage of the drug C) Route of drug administration D) Times of drug administration E) Licensed prescriber's signature Ans: A, B, C, D, E Feedback: The prescription must contain the client's name, the name of the drug, the dosage, the method and times of administration, and the signature of the licensed health care provider prescribing the drug. 9. After teaching a group of nursing students about nonprescription drugs, the nursing instructor determines that the teaching was successful when the students identify which of the following? Select all that apply. A) They require a licensed health care provider's signature. B) They are referred to as over-the-counter drugs. C) They can be taken without risk to the client. D) They have certain labeling requirements. E) They should be taken only as directed on the label. Ans: B, D, E Feedback: Nonprescription drugs are often referred to as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. They do not require a prescription (a licensed health care provider's signature) but do not come without risk to the client. The federal government has imposed labeling requirements of OTC drugs and they should only be taken as directed on the label unless under the supervision of a health care provider. Page 4 10. A nursing student is reviewing information about the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. The student would expect to find which of the following as being regulated for drugs classified as controlled substances? Select all that apply. A) Manufacturing B) Elimination C) Distribution D) Formulation E) Dispensing Ans: A, C, E Feedback: The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 regulates the manufacture, distribution, and dispensing of drugs classified as controlled substances. Elimination refers to the excretion of drugs from the body, a pharmacokinetic activity. The act does not address formulation of the drug. 11. When reviewing information about the Orphan Drug Program, which of the following would the nurse expect to find? Select all that apply. A) The program encourages the development and marketing of products to treat rare diseases. B) The program grants provisional approval with a written commitment from the drug company to formally demonstrate client benefits. C) The program provides for incentives, such as research grants, protocol assistance, and special tax credits, to develop products to treat rare diseases. D) The program grants 7 years of exclusive marketing rights to the manufacturer if approved. E) The program accelerates approval of drugs based on preliminary evidence before formal demonstration of client benefits. Ans: A, C, D Feedback: The Orphan Drug Program encourages the development and marketing of products used to treat rare diseases. The program provides incentives to encourage manufacturers to develop orphan drugs, and if approved, the manufacturer has 7 years of exclusive marketing rights. Accelerated programs involve provisional approval and approval based on preliminary evidence. Page 5 12. After teaching a group of nursing students about pharmacokinetics, the instructor determines that the teaching was successful when the students identify which of the following as a phase? Select all that apply. A) Absorption B) Distribution C) Administration D) Metabolism E) Excretion Ans: A, B, D, E Feedback: The pharmacokinetic phases are absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. The acronym ADME is a helpful way to remember the pharmacokinetic phases. 13. A nurse is preparing a teaching plan for a client who is prescribed an oral medication. As part of the plan, the nurse expects to describe the importance of absorption. The nurse would integrate knowledge of which of the following as a mechanism for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract? Select all that apply. A) Active transport B) Transposition C) Passive transport D) Endocytosis E) Pinocytosis Ans: A, C, E Feedback: During absorption, the drug particles in the GI tract are moved into the body fluids via active transport, passive transport, and pinocytosis. 14. After teaching a group of nursing students about the half-life of a drug, the instructor determines the need for additional teaching when the students identify which of the following as true? Select all that apply: A) Half-life can be decreased in clients with renal disease. B) Half-life can help determine dosing frequency. C) Half-life does not change throughout a client's life. D) Liver disease can increase half-life. E) Half-life is the measure of the rate at which drugs are removed from the body. Ans: A, C Feedback: Half-life is the measure of the rate at which drugs are removed from the body, and any difficulty in excreting a drug increases half-life, including liver or kidney disease or advanced age. Page 6 15. A nurse is assessing a client after administering a prescribed medication. Which of the following would alert the nurse to suspect that the client is developing anaphylactic shock? Select all that apply. A) Bradycardia B) Hypertension C) Dyspnea D) Urticaria E) Angioedema Ans: C, D, E Feedback: The symptoms of anaphylactic shock are dyspnea, feeling of fullness in the throat, cough, wheezing, extremely low blood pressure, tachycardia (heart rate >100 bpm), palpitations, syncope, cardiac arrest, urticaria, angioedema, pruritus, sweating, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. 16. Which of the following would the nurse identify as a factor that alters drug response in children and infants? Select all that apply. A) Slower gastric emptying B) Greater surface area C) Less protein binding D) Decreased body water content E) Less cutaneous fat Ans: A, B, C, E Feedback: Children and infants are not small adults; therefore, they have altered pharmacokinetics. Factors that alter pharmacokinetics in children include slower gastric emptying, less cutaneous fat, greater surface area, increased body water content, less protein binding, and immature hepatic and renal function. 17. The FDA established a safety information and adverse events reporting program called MedWatch. Which individuals can access the MedWatch website to obtain safety alerts on drugs, devices, or dietary supplements? Select all that apply. A) Physicians B) Nurses C) Patients D) Pharmacists E) Caregivers Ans: A, B, C, D, E Feedback: Anyone can access the MedWatch website to obtain safety alerts on drugs, devices, or dietary supplements. Page 7 18. A nurse is preparing to administer a prescribed medication to a client. The nurse integrates knowledge of which of the following as a possible factor that could influence the drug response? Select all that apply. A) Age B) Polypharmacy C) Weight D) Sex E) Disease Ans: A, B, C, D, E Feedback: Drug response can be influenced by the following factors: age, polypharmacy, weight, sex, disease, and genetics. 19. A nurse is assessing a client and notes that the client has developed swelling of the eyelids and lips after administration of a prescribed medication. The nurse interprets this finding as specifically indicating which of the following? A) Mild allergic reaction B) Anaphylactic shock C) Angioedema D) Drug idiosyncrasy Ans: C Feedback: Angioedema is a type of allergic drug reaction manifested by the collection of fluid in the subcutaneous tissues, most commonly affecting the eyelids, lips, mouth, and throat. Allergic reactions can be manifested by a wide range of signs and symptoms such as itching, rashes, and hives. Anaphylactic shock is a serious allergic reaction that requires immediate medical attention. Drug idiosyncrasy describes any unusual or abnormal reaction to a drug, one that is different from the one normally expected. 20. Which of the following is true regarding the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)? Select all that apply. A) The act allows for DEA enforcement of the act. B) The act gives the FDA power to enforce the laws governed by the act. C) The act permits general health claims. D) The act permits curative health claims. E) The act defines specific substances ...
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