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# TEST BANK FOR Classical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Chapters 1-9 By Sonntag, Borgnakke

Question posted by

The correspondence between the problem set in this fifth edition versus the
problem set in the 4'th edition text. Problems that are new are marked new and
those that are only slightly altered are marked as modified (mod).
New Old New Old New Old
1 4 mod 21 13 41E 33E mod
2 new 22 14 42E 34E mod
3 new 23 15 43E 35E
4 7 mod 24 17 44E 36E
5 2 mod 25 18 45E 37E
6 new 26 new 46E 38E
7 new 27 19 47E 39E
8 new 28 20 48E 40E
9 5 mod 29 21 49E 41E
10 6 30 22
11 8 mod 31 23
12 new 32 24
13 9 mod 33 new
14 10 mod 34 25 mod
15 11 35 26 mod
16 new 36 27 mod
17 new 37 28
18 16 mod 38 29
19 new 39E 31E mod
20 12 40E 32E
2-2
2.1 The “standard” acceleration (at sea level and 45° latitude) due to gravity is 9.80665
m/s2. What is the force needed to hold a mass of 2 kg at rest in this gravitational
field ? How much mass can a force of 1 N support ?
Solution:
ma = 0 = å F = F - mg
F = mg = 2 ´ 9.80665 = 19.613 N
F = mg => m = F/g = 1 / 9.80665 = 0.102 kg
2.2 A model car rolls down an incline with a slope so the gravitational “pull” in the
direction of motion is one third of the standard gravitational force (see Problem
2.1). If the car has a mass of 0.45 kg. Find the acceleration.
Solution:
ma = å F = mg / 3
a = mg / 3m = g/3 = 9.80665 / 3 = 3.27 m/s2
2.3 A car drives at 60 km/h and is brought to a full stop with constant deceleration in 5
seconds. If the total car and driver mass is 1075 kg. Find the necessary force.
Solution:
Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity.
ma = å F ; a = dV / dt = (60 ´ 1000) / (3600 ´ 5) = 3.33 m/s2
Fnet = ma = 1075 ´ 3.333 = 3583 N
2.4 A washing machine has 2 kg of clothes spinning at a rate that generates an
acceleration of 24 m/s2. What is the force needed to hold the clothes?
Solution:
F = ma = 2 kg ´ 24 m/s2 = 48 N
2.5 A 1200-kg car moving at 20 km/h is accelerated at a constant rate of 4 m/s2 up to a
speed of 75 km/h. What are the force and total time required?
Solution:
a = dV / dt => Dt = dV/a = [ ( 75 - 20 ) / 4 ] ´ ( 1000 / 3600 )
Dt = 3.82 sec ; F = ma = 1200 ´ 4 = 4800 N
2-3
2.6 A steel plate of 950 kg accelerates from rest with 3 m/s2 for a period of 10s. What
force is needed and what is the final velocity?
Solution:
Constant acceleration can be integrated to get velocity.
a = dV / dt => ò dV = ò a dt => DV = a Dt = 3 ´ 10 = 30 m/s
V = 30 m/s ; F = ma = 950 ´ 3 = 2850 N
2.7 A 15 kg steel container has 1.75 kilomoles of liquid propane inside. A force of 2
kN now accelerates this system. What is the acceleration?
Solution:
ma = å F Þ a = å F / m
m = msteel + mpropane = 15 + (1.75 ´ 44.094) = 92.165 kg
a = 2000 / 92.165 = 21.7 m/s2
2.8 A rope hangs over a pulley with the two equally long ends down. On one end you
attach a mass of 5 kg and on the other end you attach 10 kg. Assuming standard
gravitation and no friction in the pulley what is the acceleration of the 10 kg mass
when released?
Solution:
Do the equation of motion for the mass m2 along the
downwards direction, in that case the mass m1 moves
up (i.e. has -a for the acceleration)
m2 a = m2 g - m1 g - m1a
(m1 + m2 ) a = (m2 - m1 )g
This is net force in motion direction
a = (10 - 5) g / (10 + 5) = g / 3 = 3.27 m/s2
g
1
2
2.9 A bucket of concrete of total mass 200 kg is raised by a crane with an acceleration
of 2 m/s2 relative to the ground at a location where the local gravitational
acceleration is 9.5 m/s2. Find the required force.
Solution:
F = ma = Fup - mg
Fup = ma + mg = 200 ( 2 + 9.5 ) = 2300 N
2-4
2.10 On the moon the gravitational acceleration is approximately one-sixth that on the
surface of the earth. A 5-kg mass is “weighed” with a beam balance on the surface
on the moon. What is the expected reading? If this mass is weighed with a spring
scale that reads correctly for standard gravity on earth (see Problem 2.1), what is
Solution:
Moon gravitation is: g = gearth/6
m m
m
Beam Balance Reading is 5 kg
This is mass comparison
Spring Balance Reading is in kg units
length µ F µ g
5
6
kg
This is force comparison
2.11 One kilogram of diatomic oxygen (O2 molecular weight 32) is contained in a 500-
L tank. Find the specific volume on both a mass and mole basis (v and v ).
Solution:
v = V/m = 0.5/1 = 0.5 m3/kg
v = V/n =
V
m/M
= Mv = 32 ´ 0.5 = 16 m3/kmol
2.12 A 5 m3 container is filled with 900 kg of granite (density 2400 kg/m3 ) and the rest
of the volume is air with density 1.15 kg/m3. Find the mass of air and the overall
(average) specific volume.
Solution:
mair = r V = rair ( Vtot - mgranite / r )
= 1.15 [ 5 - (900 / 2400) ] = 1.15 ´ 4.625 = 5.32 kg
v = V / m = 5 / (900 + 5.32) = 0.00552 m3/kg
2.13 A 15-kg steel gas tank holds 300 L of liquid gasoline, having a density of 800
kg/m3. If the system is decelerated with 6 m/s2 what is the needed force?
Solution:
m = mtank + mgasoline = 15 + 0.3 ´ 800 = 255 kg
F = ma = 255 ´ 6 = 1530 N
2-5
2.14 A vertical hydraulic cylinder has a 125-mm diameter piston with hydraulic fluid
inside the cylinder and an ambient pressure of 1 bar. Assuming standard gravity,
find the piston mass that will create a pressure inside of 1500 kPa.
Solution:
Force balance: F­ = PA = F¯ = P0A + mpg ; P0 = 1 bar = 100 kPa
A = (p/4) D2 = (p/4) ´ 0.1252 = 0.01227 m2
mp = (P-P0)A/g = ( 1500 - 100 ) ´ 1000 ´ 0.01227 / 9.80665 = 1752 kg
2.15 A barometer to measure absolute pressure shows a mercury column height of 725
mm. The temperature is such that the density of the mercury is 13550 kg/m3. Find
the ambient pressure.
Solution:
Hg : Dl = 725 mm = 0.725 m; r = 13550 kg/m3
P = r gDl = 13550 ´ 9.80665 ´ 0.725 ´ 10-3 = 96.34 kPa
2.16 A cannon-ball of 5 kg acts as a piston in a cylinder of 0.15 m diameter. As the gunpowder
is burned a pressure of 7 MPa is created in the gas behind the ball. What is
the acceleration of the ball if the cylinder (cannon) is pointing horizontally?
Solution:
The cannon ball has 101 kPa on the side facing the atmosphere.
ma = F = P1 ´ A - P0 ´ A
a = (P1 - P0 ) ´ A / m = ( 7000 - 101 ) p [ ( 0.152 /4 )/5 ] = 24.38 m/s2
2.17 Repeat the previous problem for a cylinder (cannon) pointing 40 degrees up relative
to the horizontal direction.
Solution:
ma = F = ( P1 - P0 ) A - mg sin 400
ma = ( 7000 - 101 ) ´ p ´ ( 0.152 / 4 ) - 5 ´ 9.80665 ´ 0.6428
= 121.9 - 31.52 = 90.4 N
a = 90.4 / 5 = 18.08 m/s2
2-6
2.18 A piston/cylinder with cross sectional area of 0.01 m2 has a piston mass of 100 kg
resting on the stops, as shown in Fig. P2.18. With an outside atmospheric pressure
of 100 kPa, what should the water pressure be to lift the piston?
Solution:
Force balance: F­ = F¯ = PA = mpg + P0A
P = P0 + mpg/A = 100 kPa + (100 ´ 9.80665) / (0.01 ´ 1000)
= 100 kPa + 98.07 = 198 kPa
2.19 The hydraulic lift in an auto-repair shop has a cylinder diameter of 0.2 m. To what
pressure should the hydraulic fluid be pumped to lift 40 kg of piston/arms and 700
kg of a car?
Solution:
F¯ = ma = mg = 740 ´ 9.80665 = 7256.9 N
Force balance: F­ = ( P - P0 ) A = F¯ => P = P0 + F¯ / A
A = p D2 (1 / 4) = 0.031416 m2
P = 101 + 7256.9 / (0.031416 ´ 1000) = 332 kPa
2.20 A differential pressure gauge mounted on a vessel shows 1.25 MPa and a local
barometer gives atmospheric pressure as 0.96 bar. Find the absolute pressure inside
the vessel.
Solution:
Pgauge = 1.25 MPa = 1250 kPa; P0 = 0.96 bar = 96 kPa
P = Pgauge + P0 = 1250 + 96 = 1346 kPa
2.21 The absolute pressure in a tank is 85 kPa and the local ambient absolute pressure is
97 kPa. If a U-tube with mercury, density 13550 kg/m3, is attached to the tank to
measure the vacuum, what column height difference would it show?
Solution:
DP = P0 - Ptank = rgDl
Dl = ( P0 - Ptank ) / rg = [(97 - 85 ) ´ 1000 ] / (13550 ´ 9.80665)
= 0.090 m = 90 mm
2-7
2.22 A 5-kg piston in a cylinder with diameter of 100 mm is loaded with a linear spring
and the outside atmospheric pressure of 100 kPa. The spring exerts no force on the
piston when it is at the bottom of the cylinder and for the state shown, the pressure
is 400 kPa with volume 0.4 L. The valve is opened to let some air in, causing the
piston to rise 2 cm. Find the new pressure.
Solution:
A linear spring has a force linear proportional to displacement. F = k x, so
the equilibrium pressure then varies linearly with volume: P = a + bV, with an
intersect a and a slope b = dP/dV. Look at the balancing pressure at zero volume (V
-> 0) when there is no spring force F = PA = PoA + mpg and the initial state.
These two points determine the straight line shown in the P-V diagram.
Piston area = AP = (p/4) ´ 0.12 = 0.00785 m2
400
106.2
2
1
0 0.4
P
V
0.557
P 2
a = P0 +
mpg
Ap
= 100 +
5 ´ 9.80665
0.00785
= 106.2 kPa intersect for zero volume.
V2 = 0.4 + 0.00785 ´ 20 = 0.557 L
P2 = P1 +
dP
dV DV
= 400 +
(400-106.2)
0.4 - 0
(0.557 - 0.4)
= 515.3 kPa
2.23 A U-tube manometer filled with water, density 1000 kg/m3, shows a height
difference of 25 cm. What is the gauge pressure? If the right branch is tilted to
make an angle of 30° with the horizontal, as shown in Fig. P2.23, what should the
length of the column in the tilted tube be relative to the U-tube?
Solution:
h
H
30°
DP = F/A = mg/A = Vrg/A = hrg
= 0.25 ´ 1000 ´ 9.807 = 2452.5 Pa
= 2.45 kPa
h = H ´ sin 30°
Þ H = h/sin 30° = 2h = 50 cm
2-8
2.24 The difference in height between the columns of a manometer is 200 mm with a
fluid of density 900 kg/m3. What is the pressure difference? What is the height
difference if the same pressure difference is measured using mercury, density
13600 kg/ m3, as manometer fluid?
Solution:
DP = r1gh1 = 900 ´ 9.807 ´ 0.2 = 1765.26 Pa = 1.77 kPa
hhg = DP/ (rhg g) = (r1 gh1) / (rhg g) =
900
13600 ´0.2 = 0.0132 m= 13.2 mm
2.25 Two reservoirs, A and B, open to the atmosphere, are connected with a mercury
manometer. Reservoir A is moved up/down so the two top surfaces are level at h3
as shown in Fig. P2.25. Assuming that you know rA, rHg and measure the
heights h1, h2 , and h3, find the density rB.
Solution:
Balance forces on each side:
P0 + rAg(h3 - h2) + rHggh2 = P0 + rBg(h3 - h1) + rHggh1
Þ rB = rAè
ç æ
ø ÷ ö
h3 - h2
h3 - h1
+ rHgè
ç æ
ø ÷ ö
h2 - h1
h3 - h1
2.26 Two vertical cylindrical storage tanks are full of liquid water, density 1000 kg/m3,
the top open to the atmoshere. One is 10 m tall, 2 m diameter, the other is 2.5 m tall
with diameter 4m. What is the total force from the bottom of each tank to the water
and what is the pressure at the bottom of each tank?
Solution:
VA = H ´ pD2 ´ (1 / 4) = 10 ´ p ´ 22 ´ ( 1 / 4) = 31.416 m3
VB = H ´ pD2 ´ (1 / 4) = 2.5 ´ p ´ 42 ´ ( 1 / 4) = 31.416 m3
Tanks have the same volume, so same mass of water
F = mg = r V g = 1000 ´ 31.416 ´ 9.80665 = 308086 N
Tanks have same net force up (holds same m in gravitation field)
Pbot = P0 + r H g
Pbot,A = 101 + (1000 ´ 10 ´ 9.80665 / 1000) = 199 kPa
Pbot,B = 101 + (1000 ´ 2.5 ´ 9.80665 / 1000) = 125.5 kPa

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## [Solved] TEST BANK FOR Classical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Chapters 1-9 By Sonntag, Borgnakke

• This solution is not purchased yet.
• Submitted On 10 Feb, 2022 12:29:33
The correspondence between the problem set in this fifth edition versus the problem set in the 4'th edition text. Problems that are new are marked new and those that are only slightly altered are marked as modified (mod). New Old New Old New Old 1 4 mod 21 13 41E 33E mod 2 new 22 14 42E 34E mod 3 new 23 15 43E 35E 4 7 mod 24 17 44E 36E 5 2 mod 25 18 45E 37E 6 new 26 new 46E 38E 7 new 27 19 47E 39E 8 new 28 20 48E 40E 9 5 mod 29 21 49E 41E 10 6 30 22 11 8 mod 31 23 12 new 32 24 13 9 mod 33 new 14 10 mod 34 25 mod 15 11 35 26 mod 16 new 36 27 mod 17 new 37 28 18 16 mod 38 29 19 new 39E 31E mod 20 12 40E 32E 2-2 2.1 The “standard” acceleration (at sea level and 45° latitude) due to gravity is 9.80665 m/s2. What is the force needed to hold a mass of 2 kg at rest in this gravitational field ? How much mass can a force of 1 N support ? Solution: ma = 0 = å F = F - mg F = mg = 2 ´ 9.80665 = 19.613 N F = mg => m = F/g = 1 / 9.80665 = 0.102 kg 2.2 A model car rolls down an incline with a slope so the gravitational “pull” in the direction of motion is one third of the standard gravitational force (see Problem 2.1). If the car has a mass of 0.45 kg. Find the acceleration. Solution: ma = å F = mg / 3 a = mg / 3m = g/3 = 9.80665 / 3 = 3.27 m/s2 2.3 A car drives at 60 km/h and is brought to a full stop with constant deceleration in 5 seconds. If the total car and driver mass is 1075 kg. Find the necessary force. Solution: Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity. ma = å F ; a = dV / dt = (60 ´ 1000) / (3600 ´ 5) = 3.33 m/s2 Fnet = ma = 1075 ´ 3.333 = 3583 N 2.4 A washing machine has 2 kg of clothes spinning at a rate that generates an acceleration of 24 m/s2. What is the force needed to hold the clothes? Solution: F = ma = 2 kg ´ 24 m/s2 = 48 N 2.5 A 1200-kg car moving at 20 km/h is accelerated at a constant rate of 4 m/s2 up to a speed of 75 km/h. What are the force and total time required? Solution: a = dV / dt => Dt = dV/a = [ ( 75 - 20 ) / 4 ] ´ ( 1000 / 3600 ) Dt = 3.82 sec ; F = ma = 1200 ´ 4 = 4800 N 2-3 2.6 A steel plate of 950 kg accelerates from rest with 3 m/s2 for a period of 10s. What force is needed and what is the final velocity? Solution: Constant acceleration can be integrated to get velocity. a = dV / dt => ò dV = ò a dt => DV = a Dt = 3 ´ 10 = 30 m/s V = 30 m/s ; F = ma = 950 ´ 3 = 2850 N 2.7 A 15 kg steel container has 1.75 kilomoles of liquid propane inside. A force of 2 kN now accelerates this system. What is the acceleration? Solution: ma = å F Þ a = å F / m m = msteel + mpropane = 15 + (1.75 ´ 44.094) = 92.165 kg a = 2000 / 92.165 = 21.7 m/s2 2.8 A rope hangs over a pulley with the two equally long ends down. On one end y...
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