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# TEST BANK FOR Energy Management 5th Edition International Version By Klaus Dieter E. Pawlik

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Solutions Manual

for

Guide to Energy Management,

Fifth Edition

Klaus-Dieter E. Pawlik

v

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Energy Management .................................. 1

Chapter 2: The Energy Audit Process: An Overview ........................ 15

Chapter 3: Understanding Energy Bill .................................................. 21

Chapter 4: Economic Analysis and Life Cycle Costing ..................... 37

Chapter 5: Lighting ................................................................................... 53

Chapter 6: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning .................... 69

Chapter 7: Combustion Processes and the

Use of Industrial Wastes ...................................................... 83

Chapter 8: Steam Generation and Distribution ................................. 103

Chapter 9: Control Systems and Computers ......................................111

Chapter 10: Maintenance ......................................................................... 119

Chapter 11: Insulation .............................................................................. 127

Chapter 12: Process Energy Management ............................................ 141

Chapter 13: Renewable Energy Sources and Water ........................... 149

Management Supplemental ......................................................................... 159

Introduction to Energy Management 1

1

Chapter 1

Introduction to Energy Management

Problem: For your university or organization, list some energy management

projects that might be good “fi rst ones,” or early

selections.

Solution: Early projects should have a rapid payback, a high probability

of success, and few negative consequences (increasing/

decreasing the air-conditioning/heat, or reducing

lighting levels).

Examples:

Switching to a more effi cient light source (especially

in conditioned areas where one not only saves with

the reduced power consumption of the lamps but also

from reduced refrigeration or air-conditioning load).

Repairing steam leaks. Small steam leaks become large

leaks over time.

Insulating hot fl uid pipes and tanks.

Install high effi ciency motors.

And many more

2 Solutions Manual for Guide to Energy Management

Problem: Again for your university or organization, assume you are

starting a program and are defi ning goals. What are some

potential fi rst-year goals?

Solution: Goals should be tough but achievable, measurable, and

specifi c.

Examples:

Total energy per unit of production will drop by 10

percent for the fi rst and an additional 5 percent the

second.

Within 2 years all energy consumers of 5 million British

thermal units per hour (Btuh) or larger will be separately

metered for monitoring purposes.

Each plant in the division will have an active energy

management program by the end of the fi rst year.

All plants will have contingency plans for gas curtailments

of varying duration by the end of the fi rst

year.

All boilers of 50,000 lbm/hour or larger will be examined

for waste heat recovery potential the fi rst year.

Introduction to Energy Management 3

Problem: Perform the following energy conversions and calculations:

a) A spherical balloon with a diameter of ten feet is fi lled

with natural gas. How much energy is contained in

that quantity of natural gas?

b) How many Btu are in 200 therms of natural gas? How

many Btu in 500 gallons of 92 fuel oil?

c) An oil tanker is carrying 20,000 barrels of #2 fuel oil.

If each gallon of fuel oil will generate 550 kWh of

electric energy in a power plant, how many kWh can

be generated from the oil in the tanker?

d) How much coal is required at a power plant with a

heat rate of 10,000 Btu/kWh to run a 6 kW electric

resistance heater constantly for 1 week (16 8 hours)?

e) A large city has a population which is served by a

single electric utility which burns coal to generate

electrical energy. If there are 500,000 utility customers

using an average of 12,000 kWh per year, how many

tons of coal must be burned in the power plants if the

heat rate is 10,500 Btu/kWh?

f) Consider an electric heater with a 4,500 watt heating

element. Assuming that the water heater is 98% effi -

cient, how long will it take to heat 50 gallons of water

from 70 degree F to 140 degree F?

4 Solutions Manual for Guide to Energy Management

Solution:

a) V = 4/3 (PI) P

= 4/3 × 3.14 × 53

523.33 ft3

E = V × 1,000 Btu/cubic foot of natural gas

= 523.33 ft3 X 1,000 Btu/ft3

= 523,333 Btu

b) E = 200 therms × 100, 000 Btu/therm of natural gas

= 20,000,000 Btu

E = 500 gallons × 140,000 Btu/gallon of #2 fuel oil

70,000,000 Btu

c) E = 20,000 barrels × 42 gal./barrel × 550 kWh/gal.

4.6E+08 kWh

d) V = 10,000 Btu/kWh × 6 kW × 168 h/25,000,000

Btu/ton coal

= 0.40 tons of coal

e) V = 500,000 cus. × 12,000 kWh/cus. × 10,500

Btu/kWh × I ton/25,000,000 Btu

= 2,520,000 tons of coal

f) E = 50 gal. × 8.34 lbm/gal. × (140F - 70F) ×

1 Btu/F/lbm

= 29,190 Btu

= 29,190 Btu/3,412 Btu/kWh

= 8.56 kWh

= 8.56 kWh/4.5 kW/0.98

= 1.94 h

Introduction to Energy Management 5

Problem: If you were a member of the upper level management in

charge of implementing an energy management program

at your university or organization, what actions would you

take to reward participating individuals and to reinforce

commitment to energy management?

Solution: The following actions should be taken to reward individuals

and reinforce commitment to energy management:

Develop goals and a way of tracking their progress.

Develop an energy accounting system with a performance

measure such as Btu/sq. ft or Btu/unit.

Assign energy costs to a cost center, profi t center, an

investment center or some other department that has

an individual responsibility for cost or profi t.

Reward (with a monetary bonus) all employees who

control cost or profi t relative to the level of cost or

profi t. At the risk of being repetitive, note that the level

of cost or profi t should include energy costs.

6 Solutions Manual for Guide to Energy Management

Problem: A person takes a shower for ten minutes. The water fl ow

rate is three gallons per minute, the temperature of the

shower water is 110 degrees E Assuming that cold water

is at 65 degrees F, and that hot water from a 70% effi cient

gas water heater is at 140 degrees F, how many cubic feet

of natural gas does it take to provide the hot water for the

shower?

Solution: E = 10 min × 3 gal./min × 8.34 lbm/gal ×

(110 F - 65 F) × 1 Btu/lbm/F

= 11,259 Btu

V = 11,259 Btu × 1 cubic foot/1,000 Btu/0.70

= 16.08 cubic feet of natural gas

Introduction to Energy Management 7

Problem: An offi ce building uses 1 Million kWh of electric energy

and 3,000 gallons of #2 fuel oil per year. The building has

45,000 square feet of conditioned space. Determine the

Energy Use Index (EUI) and compare it to the average EUI

of an offi ce building.

Solution: E(elect.) = 1,000,000 kWh/yr. × 3,412 Btu/kWh

= 3,412,000,000 Btu/yr.

E(#2 fuel) = 3,000 gal./yr. × 140,000 Btu/gal.

= 420,000,000 Btu/yr.

E = 3,832,000,000 Btu/yr.

EUI = 3,832,000,000 Btu/yr./45,000 sq. ft

= 85,156 Btu/sq. ft/yr. which is

less than the average offi ce building

8 Solutions Manual for Guide to Energy Management

Problem: The offi ce building in Problem 1.6 pays $65,000 a year for

electric energy and $3,300 a year for fuel oil. Determine the

Energy Cost Index (ECI) for the building and compare it

to the ECI for an average building.

Solution: ECI = ($65,000 + $3,300)/45,000 sq. ft

= $1.52/sq. ft/yr.

which is greater than the average building

Introduction to Energy Management 9

Problem: As a new energy manager, you have been asked to predict

the energy consumption for electricity for next month

(February). Assuming consumption is dependent on units

produced, that 1,000 units will be produced in February,

and that the following data are representative, determine

your estimate for February.

—————————————————————

Units Consumption Average

Given: Month produced (kWh) (kWh/unit)

—————————————————————

January 600 600 1.00

February 1,500 1,200 0.80

March 1,000 800 0.80

April 800 1,000 1.25

May 2,000 1,100 0.55

June 100 700 7.00 Vacation month

July 1,300 1,000 0.77

August 1,700 1,100 0.65

September 300 800 2.67

October 1,400 900 0.64

November 1,100 900 0.82

December 200 650 3.25 1-week shutdown

January 1,900 1,200 0.63

Solution: First, since June and December have special circumstances,

we ignore these months. We then run a regression to fi nd

the slope and intercept of the process model. We assume

that with the exception of the vacation and the shutdown

that nothing other then the number of units produced

affects the energy used. Another method of solving this

problem may assume that the weather and temperature

changes also affects the energy use.

10 Solutions Manual for Guide to Energy Management

—————————————————————————

Units Consumption Average

Month produced (kWh) (kWh/unit)

—————————————————————————

January 600 600 1.00

February 1,500 1,200 0.80

March 1,000 800 0.80

April 800 1,000 1.25

May 2,000 1,100 0.55

July 1,300 1,000 0.77

August 1,700 1,100 0.65

September 300 800 2.67

October 1,400 900 0.64

November 1,100 900 0.82

January 1,900 1,200 0.63

From the ANOVA table, we see that if this process is modeled

linearly the equation describing this is as follows:

kWh (1,000 units) = 623 + 0.28 × kWh/unit produced

= 899 kWh

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

January

Febuary

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Units produced

Comsumption (kWh)

Introduction to Energy Management 11

——————————————————————————————————

Coeffi cients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95. 0% Upper 95.0%

——————————————————————————————————

Intercept 623.1884058 93.46296795 6.667759 9.19E-05 411.7603222 834.616489 411.760322 834.6164893

X Variable 1 0,275362319 0.06993977 3.942772 0.003392 0,117373664 0.43335097 0.11737366 0.433350974

——————————————————————————————————

SUMMARY OUTPUT

————————————

Regression Statistics

————————————

Multiple R 0.795822426

R Square 0.633333333

Adjusted R Square 0.592592593

Standard Effort 118.6342028

Observations 11

————————————

ANOVA

——————————————————————————

df SS MS F Signifi cance F

——————————————————————————

Regression 1 218787.9788 218787.9 15.54545 0.00339167

Residual 9 126666.6667 14074.07

Total 10 345454.5455

——————————————————————————

500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

1,400

1,200

1,000

800

600

400

200

Units produced

Energy Used (kWh)

12 Solutions Manual for Guide to Energy Management

Problem: For the same data as given in Problem 1.8, what is the

fi xed energy consumption (at zero production, how much

energy is consumed and for what is that energy used)?

Solution: By looking at the regression run for problem 1.8 (see

ANOVA table), we can see the intercept for the process in

question. This intercept is probably the best estimate of the

fi xed energy consumption:

623 kWh.

This energy is probably used for space conditioning and

security lights.

Introduction to Energy Management 13

Problem: Determine the cost of fuel switching, assuming there were

2,000 cooling degree days (CDD) and 1,000 units produced

in each year.

Given: At the Gator Products Company, fuel switching caused

an

increase in electric consumption as follows:

——————————————————————————

Actual energy

Expected consumption

energy after

consumption switching fuel

——————————————————————————

Electric/CDD 75 million Btu 80 million Btu

——————————————————————————

Electric/units of

production 100 million Btu 115 million Btu

——————————————————————————

The base year cost of electricity is $15 per million Btu,

while this year’s cost is $18 per million Btu.

Solution: Cost variance = $18/million Btu - $15/million Btu

= $3/million Btu

Increase cost due to cost variance

= Cost variance × Total Actual Energy Use

= ($3/million Btu) × ((80 million Btu/CDD) ×

(2,000 CDDs) + (115 million Btu/unit) × (1,000

units))

= $825,000

CDD electric variance

= 2,000 CDD × (80 - 75) million Btu/CDD

= 10,000 million Btu

Units electric variance

= 1,000 units × (115 - 100) million Btu/unit

= 15,000 million Btu

14 Solutions Manual for Guide to Energy Management

Increase in energy use

= CDD electric variance + Units electric variance

= 10,000 million Btu + 15,000 million Btu

= 25,000 million Btu

Increase cost due to increased energy use

= (Increase in energy use) × (Base cost of electricity)

= 25,000 billion Btu × $15/million Btu

= $375,000

Total cost of fuel switching

= Increase cost due to increased energy use

+ Increased cost due to cost variance

= $375,000 + $825,000

= $1,200,000

The Energy Audit Process: An Overview 15

15

Chapter 2

The Energy Audit Process:

An Overview

Problem: Compute the number of heating degree days (HDD) associated

with the following weather data.

Tempera- 65F -Temture

Number perature Hours

Given: Time Period (degrees F) of hours (degrees F) × dT

Midnight - 4:00 AM 20 4 45 180

4:00 AM - 7:00 AM 15 3 50 150

7:00 AM - 10:00 AM 18 3 47 141

10:00 AM - Noon 22 2 43 86

Noon - 5:00 PM 30 5 35 175

5:00 PM - 8:00 PM 25 3 40 120

8:00 PM - Midnight 21 4 44 176

———

1,028

Solution: From the added columns in the given table, we see that the

number of hours times the temperature difference from 65

degrees F is 1,028 F-hours. Therefore, the number of HDD

can be calculated as follows:

HDD = 1,028 F-hours/24 h/day

= 42.83 degree-days

16 Solutions Manual for Guide to Energy Management

Problem: Select a specifi c type of manufacturing plant and describe

the kinds of equipment that would likely be found in such a

plant.

List the audit data that would need to be collected for each

piece of equipment.

What particular safety aspects should be considered when

touring the plant?

Would any special safety equipment or protection be required?

Solution: The following equipment could be found in a wide variety

of manufacturing facilities:

Equipment Audit data

Heaters Power rating

Use characteristics (annual use, used in conjunction

with what other equipment, how is the equipment

used?)

Boilers Power rating

Use characteristics

Fuel used

Air-to-fuel ratio

Percent excess air

Air-conditioners Power rating

Chillers Effi ciency

Refrigeration Cooling capacity

Use characteristics

Motors Power rating

Effi ciency

Use characteristics

Lighting Power rating

Use characteristics

Air-compressors Power rating

Use characteristics

Effi ciency

Various air pressures

An assessment of leaks

## [Solved] TEST BANK FOR Energy Management 5th Edition International Version By Klaus Dieter E. Pawlik

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