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1. (TCO 1) Which best explains the differences between historians and political scientists? (Points : 2) 
        Historians look for generalizations, and political scientists are reluctant to generalize.
        Historians are reluctant to generalize, and political scientists look for generalizations.
        Historians are more likely to look for comparisons than political scientists.
        Historians tend to focus on nature-based explanations, and political scientists focus on nurture-based explanations.

Question 2. 2. (TCO 1) The notion that politicians think practically and political scientists think abstractly is indicative of which of the following? (Points : 2) 
        Political scientists often train politicians.
        Politicians often train political scientists.
        Political scientists and politicians are different in that the former studies the latter.
        Political scientists and politicians are often indistinguishable.

Question 3. 3. (TCO 1) When people base their views on beliefs that may not be based in reality, they are behaving _____. (Points : 2) 

Question 4. 4. (TCO 1) A political leader’s ability to command respect and exercise power is known as _____. (Points : 2) 

Question 5. 5. (TCO 1) Despite a disputed 2000 presidential election, once President George W. Bush took office, few people doubted his _____. (Points : 2) 

Question 6. 6. (TCO 1) Relating concepts in a way that connects them in an empirical manner is the basis of _____ building. (Points : 2) 

Question 7. 7. (TCO 1) A(n) _____ is an initial theory a researcher starts with to be proved with evidence. (Points : 2) 

Question 8. 8. (TCO 4) Unlike natural law, positive law uses _____. (Points : 2) 
        the spirit of the law to make determinations
        books to reach conclusions
        judicial sentencing to determine case outcomes
        jury selection to manipulate judgment

Question 9. 9. (TCO 4) Under which of the following circumstances might a case be pursued as both a criminal and a civil case? (Points : 2) 
        The federal government accuses investment houses of wrongdoing and investors who lost money sue them.
        Drug traffickers violate property and federal law by moving drugs across state borders.
        Burglars violate federal property and the state sues them for damages.
        A state accuses banks of mortgage fraud in mortgages sold to investors elsewhere in the nation.

Question 10. 10. (TCO 4) Describe the significance of Marbury v. Madison. (Points : 2) 
        The ruling laid precedent for judicial review.
        The ruling stated that the president is subject to the court’s decisions.
        The ruling decreed that current administrations must honor the appointments of previous administrations.
        The ruling claimed that federal taxes could not be levied on the states.

Question 11. 11. (TCO 4) What legal agency in the United States generates reputation-based ratings of prospective federal judges? (Points : 2) 
        Judicial Ratings Bureau
        Federal Bureau of Judicial Review
        American Bar Association
        Office of Legal Assessment

Question 12. 12. (TCO 4) When was judicial review granted to the Supreme Court within the United States? (Points : 2) 
        It was granted during the Constitution Convention of 1787.
        It was granted in the Bill of Rights.
        It was the result of the Marbury v. Madison decision of 1803.
        It was never officially adopted but is an unofficial practice.

Question 13. 13. (TCO 4) Which of the following best articulates the stance of judicial restraint advocates? (Points : 2) 
        Judicial review is the best and only true method of checking legislative power.
        The court should practice restraint in cases in which legislative acts are presented for interpretation.
        Only the executive branch can restrain the court, keeping the power of judicial review in balance with the other governing branches.
        Only Congress should make public policy and, unless a legislative act clearly violates the Constitution, the law should stand.

Question 14. 14. (TCO 4) The Supreme Court’s decision in _____ (1954) triggered a revolution in American race relations, an area Congress had been unwilling to touch. (Points : 2) 
        Miranda v. Arizona
        Dred Scott v. Sandford
        Brown v. Board of Education
        Gibbons v. Ogden

Question 15. 15. (TCO 5) Which systems demonstrate the clearest separation of power between the executive and legislative branches? (Points : 2) 

Question 16. 16. (TCO 5) How often does the cabinet change in a parliamentary system? (Points : 2) 
        Every 4 years
        Every 6 years
        Every 8 years
        When the cabinet is voted out or resigns

Question 17. 17. (TCO 5) Voters receive the most direct representation in which system? (Points : 2) 


Question 18. 18. (TCO 5) The head of ministry is equivalent to the _____ in the United States. (Points : 2) 
        chief of government
        head of state
        departmental secretary

1. (TCO 5) The only political system that could guarantee the cooperation between the legislative and executive branches is _____. (Points : 2) 
        a monarchy
        a dictatorship
        a democracy
        an oligarchy

Question 2. 2. (TCO 5) In the case of both parliamentary and presidential systems, examine the reason democracies will not vanish, even though the executive seems to be receiving more and more power. (Points : 2) 
        Checks and balances keep the chief executive from gaining too much power.
        Chief executives will eventually have to face reelection, which depends greatly on the approval of voting citizens.
        Both systems have methods by which to oust chief executives.
        Subordinates carry out some of the workload of the chief executive.

Question 3. 3. (TCO 5) Explain which type of candidate parliamentary systems seek out to become ministers. (Points : 2) 
        Those who have experience winning elections and serving on a parliamentary committee
        Newcomers who can bring in a fresh perspective to the ministry
        Individuals who possess a great knowledge of the specific ministry’s area
        Those who have political experience regardless of whether or not they have been elected in the past

Question 4. 4. (TCO 7) Radicals use the term political economy instead of _____,”which is a hard sell these days. (Points : 2) 
        late capitalism
        pure market system

Question 5. 5. (TCO 7) Early 20th-century European governments subscribed to _____ doctrines, generally keeping their hands away from the economy. (Points : 2) 
        classic liberal

Question 6. 6. (TCO 7) Between 1965 and 1973, the percentage of Americans living below the poverty line _____. (Points : 2) 
        greatly decreased
        slightly increased
        rapidly increased

Question 7. 7. (TCO 7) Which of the following is an increasing financial concern of the Medicare program? (Points : 2) 
        The proportion of older people in American society is increasing steadily.
        Every American citizen on reaching 65 obtains Medicare, regardless of class.
        Economic inequality renders Medicare more necessary for some than for others.
        Wealthy Americans are taking advantage of the Medicare system.

Question 8. 8. (TCO 7) Why are many politicians wary about limiting Social Security and Medicare expenses? (Points : 2) 
        Many would be left without enough to support them.
        Caps to these programs would undermine the welfare state.
        It can cost them votes.
        Both are primary social safety nets.

Question 9. 9. (TCO 7) How does the American welfare state compare to those of other industrialized nations? (Points : 2) 
        Much less is allocated to welfare in the United States.
        Other nations allocate less to welfare than the United States.
        The United States allocates about the same to welfare.
        Few nations besides the United States maintain funds for welfare.

Question 10. 10. (TCO 7) Theoretically, what are the consequences if the government assumes the burden of bad loans? (Points : 2) 
        Citizens will default on their mortgages.
        Banks will learn from their mistakes and pay back the burden with interest.
        Ultimately, the government will profit.
        Firms will be encouraged to continue their risky behavior.

Question 11. 11. (TCO 9) _____ is a small or moderate change that essentially leaves the system intact. (Points : 2) 
        Mass discontent
        Dramatic system change
        A coup d’etat

Question 12. 12. (TCO 9) Describe what can often happen in a changing society when, during times of prosperity, some people get rich faster than others. (Points : 2) 
        Jealousy is aroused.
        Politicians pay more attention to poverty.
        The very poor revolt.
        Economists become confused.

Question 13. 13. (TCO 9) What is likely to happen if the people are unhappy and there is no organization to focus their discontent? (Points : 2) 
        They will almost surely turn to violence.
        Not much will happen.
        The people will organize themselves, regardless.
        They will eventually find other means of achieving contentedness.

Question 14. 14. (TCO 9) What about U.S. agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and the CIA make them so ill prepared to fight terrorism? (Points : 2) 
        They have extremely different missions when it comes to terrorism.
        They are poorly funded.
        They have a great deal of red tape to get through in order to be able to communicate.
        They are often unwilling to communicate with each other.

Question 15. 15. (TCO 9) According to Hannah Arendt, the American struggle was indeed a revolution, perhaps history’s only complete revolution, _____. (Points : 2) 
        because it alone ended with democratic institutions.
        because it became an example for other nations.
        because it managed to route what was then the great world power.
        because it alone ended with a new foundation of liberty instead of the tyranny that came after other revolutions.

Question 16. 16. (TCO 9) Does terrorism work? (Points : 2) 
        Rarely, and seldom without political and/or economic pressure
        Rarely, but primarily when brought against democratic nations
        Often, and without much need for political pressure to aid it
        Often, but only with the assistance of economic and/or political pressure

Question 17. 17. (TCO 9) Hannah Arendt pointed out that rage is the fuel of revolution, but what is now the greatest cause of rage? (Points : 2) 
        The low level of education in developing nations
        The enormous economic mismanagement in industrialized nations
        The extreme violence utilized by industrialized nations against developing nations
        The massive corruption now found in developing lands

1. (TCO 2) Evaluate Aristotle’s six types of government. In doing so, please be sure to list and define the categorizations. Please then assess how these classifications can be useful today to someone analyzing current governmental structures. (Points : 40)
Explain the relationship between electoral systems and party systems. Answers should be sure to assess this question from the perspective of both proportional representation and single-member districts and provide examples to support your points. (Points : 40)
The United States has utilized multiple forms of liberalism throughout its history. Please distinguish the specific characteristics of classical and modern liberalism and outline the evolution of these forms of liberalism within the United States. Please be sure to include specific historic examples to support your points. (Points : 40)
Today’s world seems to be moving beyond sovereignty and toward supranational leadership to cooperate on issues of global importance. What are some of these issues? How might they be solved through supranational cooperation? Does such cooperation impede the sovereignty of independent nations? Please sure to include specific examples in supporting your points. (Points : 40)

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