Urinalysis: Specific gravity is a measure of hydration and renal concentration ability. Range
= 1.003 to 1.030.
Blood - indicates the presence of hemoglobin.
Leukocyte esterase – “Pyuria” +WBCs indicates white blood cells (WBCs) in the
urine and, if positive, warrants further investigation. inflammation from irritation
or infection of vulva, vagina, or urethra; inflammation of bladder or kidneys with
or without infection
Nitrites - an indirect measure of bacteria in the urine. (Best captured with 1st
void). Always confirm either way with a culture if the patient is symptomatic for
UTI. (4hour rule).
Glucose - Metabolic problem (e.g., diabetes), recent high glucose intake, oral
Ketones - Dehydration, starvation, missed breakfast, strenuous exercise, stress,
fever, metabolic problems (e.g., diabetes).
Protein – Renal disease, orthostatic proteinuria.
Urobilinogen - Hemolytic disease; hepatic disease
Bilirubin – Hepatic disease or biliary obstruction.
Casts - RBCs, hyaline, waxy, epithelial, leukocyte, or fatty casts are seen in
various disease states.
Urine culture and sensitivities: remains the gold standard for ...